Written by Super User
Created: 28 May 2015
Table Of Contents:
- Development Aid, Agricultural Value Chains and Farmers’ Benefits: The Case of Vanilla Growers in Kasese, Uganda by Innocent Royal Kamya
- Determinants of Household Participation in Land Rental Markets in Amigna District, Arsi Zone of Oromiya Region, Ethiopia by Abaineh Amare and Fekadu Beyene
- Gender Differences in the Migration of Zimbabwean Teachers to South Africa by Dick Ranga
- The Situation of Street Children in Selected Cities of South Sudan: Magnitude, Causes, and Effects by Belay Tefera
- Socio-Ecological Characterization of Forest Ecosystem Health in the South-western Mau Forest Reserve, Kenya by Gilbert O. Obati and Broder Breckling
Abstract: DEVELOPMENT AID, AGRICULTURAL VALUE CHAINS AND FARMERS’ BENEFITS: THE CASE OF VANILLA GROWERS IN KASESE, UGANDA
Innocent Royal Kamya
This article assesses farmers’ benefits from a donor-funded programme that promoted non-traditional agricultural export crops, specifically vanilla and hot pepper. Data was obtained from a survey of 125 famers from eight farmers’ associations working with a Dutch NGO and trading company, four focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Kasese Smallholder Income and Investment Programme used a value chain approach helping farmers at various stages. Farmers benefited from input loans, agricultural skills, extension services and a market for their produce. Vanilla producers were affected by the persistent drop in the crop prices, which affected the sustainability of associations beyond the Kasese Smallholder Income and Investment Programme. Stronger famers’ associations will give more benefits; the government should therefore promote a nationwide cooperative movement and crop regulatory authorities so as to be able to help farmers sustainably.
DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN LAND RENTAL MARKETS IN AMIGNA DISTRICT, ARSI ZONE OF OROMIYA REGION, ETHIOPIA
Abaineh Amare and Fekadu Beyene
This study examines factors affecting household participation and intensity of the participation in land rental markets using data collected from 118 households. Results revealed that landholding and age of the household heads are important variables which had an inverse and significant influence on participation and the intensity of participation in land renting-in market, but positively affect renting-out market. On the supply side, having less oxen and being aged are more likely to affect renting-out. Credit market imperfection, tenure insecurity and poor infrastructure development remain important factors impeding the function of land rental markets. These suggest that interventions should emphasize facilitating land-related transactions through creating effective micro-finance institutions, public awareness and strengthening enforcement of formal rules in land rental markets.
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE MIGRATION OF ZIMBABWEAN TEACHERS TO SOUTH AFRICA
This paper explored the extent to which Zimbabwean professional women have joined the formal sector of South Africa and the determinants of their migration in large or small numbers. It is based on a questionnaire survey conducted in 2012 and involving 200 Zimbabwean teachers, one half in Zimbabwe and the other half in South Africa. Fewer female than male teachers migrated to South Africa mainly because of females’ tendency not to progress to degree level and not to specialise in mathematics or science. Other reasons included their greater vulnerability to some types of violence such as rape, which forced them to learn South African languages fast in order to conceal their foreign identity. Women’s child-care roles and ostracism of those who migrated alone were also used to discourage them from migrating to South Africa.
THE SITUATION OF STREET CHILDREN IN SELECTED CITIES OF SOUTH SUDAN: MAGNITUDE, CAUSES, AND EFFECTS
Although international declarations upholding children’s rights for survival and development were already enshrined in the domestic laws and policies of South Sudan, the reality on the ground appears to depict that scores of children in streets are as yet most marginalized and least investigated. The objectives of this study were to examine the magnitude, causes and effects of child streetism in six state capitals of South Sudan and suggest the way forward. Data on magnitude were collected using a Child Inventory Form. Then, a Child Questionnaire was administered to a sample of 756 street children. Findings indicated that child streetism was only emerging but growing at an alarming rate. The possible factors included war-induced displacement, family disruption, economic constraints, mistreatment at home, lack of access to education and child-related behavioural factors. Once in the street, children were also found exposed to a living arrangement deprived of parental supervision and support, disruption of developmentally-constructive routines, substance abuse and health concerns. In fact, the impacts were far from uniform and not all about “negatives”.
SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM HEALTH IN THE SOUTH-WESTERN MAU FOREST RESERVE, KENYA
Gilbert O. Obati and Broder Breckling
Assessment and documentation of the status of ecosystem health and analysis of the effects of human-induced changes on a Kenyan montane natural forest, characterized by a human-dominated landscape, were done. A socioeconomic assessment of the perceptions and attitudes of the inhabitants about the importance, status and causes of degradation was carried out between August 2006 and September 2007. The provisional capacity of the reserve for goods and services was also evaluated. In order to assess individual local actions at the household level and their effects on the overall health dynamics in the forest reserve, information about the direct and indirect drivers of forest degradation at the forest reserve level was sought from the time of inhabitation until the time of study. The perceptions and attitudes of the inhabitants regarding supply of ecosystem goods and services at the forest reserve scale were evaluated. This was executed using a household survey where one hundred and fifty household heads were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. An integrated approach to defining the health of the ecosystem at the local level was attempted. Results indicated a chronological degradation in the condition of the forest over time. A continued reduction in the number and density of once dominant tree species as well as structural physiognomy was shown. Households in the South-western Mau experience an increasing decline in the supply of once abundant important goods, including fuelwood, timber, medicinal plants and poles. Disappearance of abundant and common wildlife species was also recorded. In the forest reserve, solutions to issues and problems related to encroachment on forestland and related disturbance activities lie in clear land use policy and legislation designating particular uses to particular land categories. This is urgently required to deal with the issues related to unsustainable land use.